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Title: Interface Between Job Design, Job Practices And Organisational Efficacy: Case Study Of Selected Manufacturing Organisations
Authors: Satpathy, Asim
Keywords: School of Social Sciences
Srivastava, D.K.
Issue Date: 2004
Abstract: Introduction Organizations are driven by systems, systemic-actors, and systemic variables in the operational paradigm of the organizational output. The locus of focus since Fordism and Taylonsm emerged, has been on the output side of production, with the input variables being dictated by output targets or objectives With changing growth needs and social responsibilities, the criticality to analyse the input side of production, and it's subsequent effect on the output has become a matter of urgency In this light, one entity, that affects the people, the processes, and the product, is the "fob", more so in the context of organizational business requirements and optimization of stakeholder participation. Hence the "design of the job" assumes proportion of criticality in the realm of the organizational output encompassing the role of the people, the product, the processes and the play of forces amongst them Having said this, It is all the more pertinent to sink in the fact, that, organisations are driven with a profit motive and most necessarily a strong business need They strive for productivity, and cater to the requirements of the customers, day in and day out This calls for being both efficient and effective on the "manufacturing floor", otherwise referred to as the shop floor. Productivity on the shop floor, though vital to market demands, has two limitations a) It is purely product focused and b) It takes into account only the measurable aspect of tangible resources r r . l r Productivity delves - into the technical aspect of efficiency and effectiveness, and fails to incorporate the social and psychological implications of "systemic-actors" on business goals "Systemic actors" referred here; cover the entire ambit of employees, the stakeholders of the organization and the customers Hence the slack in the limitedness of productivity needs an ablution in the changing business environment, which is both volatile and demanding Hence the need for "efficacy" in the context of the research The intangible aspects like the culture of the organization, its mission and beliefs get reflected in the work environment that the organization builds In this light, the "practices of the organization" which might be more system dnven, cannot be ignored The integration of practices of the organization in the context of the "job", crystallizes in the form of "job practices", which have three ingredients to its ment; "the business model", the "cultural practices" and "the systems". Organisational efficacy referred in the study has been purely in the context of "shop floor efficacy" and organization referred, is in the field of manufacturing The emergence of the tnlogy of "job design", "job practices" and "organizational efficacy" necessitates a further demand to pulse the dynamics that interplay amongst the three The study explores to find the integrative as well as differential forces amongst the three and delves into the interface thereof 2 "Job", its design and practices alter its dimensions with the changing portfolio of the job-holder as well. That is, the design, the interface and hence the degree of efficacy would vary if the portfolio changes from that of an individual to that of a group Job practices are more "lineage driven" by nature and have a strong product focus where as job design is more `contingency ndden " and is more process and people focused The characteristics of the job is multidimensional , with the aspects of "skill vanety", "task identity" and "task significance" dictating the cntical psychological state of an "experienced meaningfulness of work ". When the above mentioned three dimensions get supplanted by macro factors like "autonomy of job" and "feedback about the job", the potency of motivation in an employee increases for the job The hard aspects of ergonomics, optimization of time, line balancing, space otpimisation, process sequencing and machine indexing are also crucial to job design The contents of job design range from minimization of fatigue by optimizing time and motion of the entity (being both individual and process), to that of horizontal loading and vertical loading Job design takes into account the growth needs and psychological needs in the form of job enrichment. This in lieu has a direct bearing on the organizational efficacy and hence product throughput Job practices encompass techniques like Kaizen, total Industrial engineering, QC's, TQM, six sigma and the like There does exist an area of commonality between job practices and job design in the form of Kaizen, Self directed work teams etc. The area of commonality addresses both process needs and product enhancement The following discussion attempts to explore the causality between the various variables and figure out the dynamics of the interface of job design, job practices and shop floor efficacy The chapters to follow also explores the impact of extraneous environmental factors like market fluctuations, sudden cultural changes, and techno structural limitations on the design of the job
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