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Title: Interface of Conservation and Livelihood in Protected Areas in Odisha
Authors: Satpathy, Bijayashree
Keywords: School of Habitat Studies
Geetanjoy Sahu
Conservation and Livelihood - Protected Areas - Odisha
Odisha - Conservation and Livelihood - Protected Areas
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: A careful review of the literature in conservation law/policy and discourse shows that prevailing assumptions both at the national and international level about conservation of protected areas through strong state regulation and exclusion of people rests more on dominant power groups including elites, tourism industries, forest department and radical conservation scientists. Such dominant and conventional conservation policy model fails to take into account the peculiar socio-economic and political conditions in rural areas, where the vast majority of those living are dependent on forest resources for their livelihood. Conservation efforts, especially protected areas through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although recent conservation and society policy literature offers insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that state forest machineries, especially wildlife department and conservation scientists continue to dominate the conservation policy making process in India. Another is that social scientists have typically looked at local knowledge and decentralised governance structure as important ones, rather than emphasising the contextual, institutional and innovative technological approach, as implied in the current sustainable conservation programs across the globe. Understanding the linkage between conservation and livelihood remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between dominant coalitions (wilderness movement advocates, forest and wildlife department, conservation scientists) supported by state and another between the social scientists, practitioners, and local NGOs, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help sustaining conservation of protected areas with emphasis on social justice and livelihoods of people. With this backdrop, the broad objective of this study was to examine the nature and level of interface of multiple conservation legislations and its impact on tenure rights and livelihoods of the communities inhabiting in and around the PAs. For this study, purposefully, two internationally recognized protected areas i.e. Bhitarkanika and Similipal are selected in Kendrapada and Mayurbhanj districts respectively in Odisha. For exploring the impact of conservation, two villages in each protected areas, located nearest to the inviolate areas were purposefully selected. For detail understanding of livelihood of the communities in the pre- and post- protected area creation the mixed method research is followed to study the dynamics of conservation and livelihood interface. Moreover, the perspectives of multiple actors on the past and present practice of conservation and livelihood is analysed which offers an understanding of multiple realities. It is found that the local communities were dependent on agriculture, livestock and forest product collection. The restrictions imposed in post-PA creation phase coupled with power dynamics prevailing in the village, led to unequal to the access to different kinds of assets, resulting in uneven distribution of resources. In comparison to the pre- PAs phase, the local communities may seem to be in a better situation, nevertheless, the improper implementation of welfare programs, the absence of basic infrastructures, curtail in customary livelihood practices led to inequality, injustice, and unsustainability. The potential of rights recognition under FRA, 2006 needs to be translated into action by institutionalization of forest resources and delegating adequate power to the village level institution to achieve the twofold objectives of conservation and livelihood.
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01_Title Page.pdf75.45 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
02_Declaration.pdf150.01 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
03_Certificate.pdf150.08 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
04_Contents.pdf160.68 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
05_List Of Tables.pdf80.76 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
06_List of Figures.pdf79.3 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
07_Abbreviations.pdf85.11 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
08_Glossary.pdf79.64 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
09_Acknowledgement.pdf81.28 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
10_Abstract.pdf83.08 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
11_Chapter 1.pdf528.42 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
12_Chapter 2.pdf302.46 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
13_Chapter 3.pdf367.94 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
14_Chapter 4.pdf477.48 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
15_Chapter 5.pdf184.13 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
16_References.pdf285.83 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

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